The Indus Valley civilization was rediscovered i 1920-21 when engraved seals were unearthed in th Punjab province of Pakistan at a site called Harappa, a name which is often used to describe th civilization as a whole. Subsequent excavations a Harappa revealed the size and complexity of thi ancient city. Other sites were unearthed as well alon the banks of the Indus River, including the equall large city of Mohenjodaro. Through archaeological an historical research, we can now say for certain that highly developed urban civilization flourished in th Indian subcontinent over five thousand years ago. Though the Indus Valley script remains undeciphered, the numerous seals, statuary, and pottery discovere during excavations, not to mention the urban ruins, have enabled scholars to construct a reasonabl plausible account of the Indus Valley civilization. Some kind of centralized state, and certainly fairl extensive town planning, is suggested by the layout o the great cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The sam kind of burnt brick appears to have been used in th construction of buildings in cities that were severa hundred miles apart. The weights and measures als show a very considerable regularity, suggesting tha these disparate cities spread out across a vast deser shared a common culture. The Indus Valley peopl domesticated animals, and harvested various crops, such as cotton, sesame, peas, barley, and cotton. Indus Valley seals have been excavated in far awa cities such as Sumer, suggesting that a wealth merchant class existed, engaged in extensive tradin throughout the subcontinent and the Near East. Considering the size of this civilization, it i puzzling that no monumental art remains, glorifyin the names of the powerful rulers or wealthy merchant who could have afforded to construct such memorials. Instead, we find an emphasis on small, elegant art an sophisticated craft technology. Three-dimensiona representations of living beings in the Harappan worl are confined to, with a few exceptions, smal terracotta figurings. Ranging in size from a fe inches to a foot in height, the anthropomorphic an animal terracotta figurines from Harappa and othe Indus Civilization sites offer a rich reflection o Harappan life in the Bronze Age. Traditionally, th terracotta figurines have been described as toys. Other objects such as carts, wheels, and cot discovered alongside the figurines has only reinforce this notion. However, whether these figures were idol meant to be worshipped or merely charmin representations of daily life meant to entertai children remains debatable. Other than the archaeological ruins of Harappa an Mohenjodaro, these seals provide the most detaile clues about the character of the Indus Valley people. Bulls and elephants appear on these seals, but th horned bull, most scholars agree, should not be take to be congruent with Nandi, for the horned bul appears in numerous Central Asian figures as well. Th women portrayed on the seals are shown with elaborat coiffures, sporting heavy jewelry, suggesting that th Indus Valley people were an urbane people wit cultivated tastes and a refined aesthetic sensibility. A few thousand seals have been discovered in Indu Valley cities, showing some 400 pictographs: too fe in number for the language to have been ideographic, and too many for the language to have been phonetic. The Zebu bull, an ox with a prominent hump that ha been domesticated in the east since the earliest day of history, represents power, strength and nobility. In particular, the humped bull has been a prominen theme in the pottery and decorative arts of the Indu Valley civilization. The Zebu bull, the leader of th herd, the protector and procreator of the species, likely symbolizes a powerful clan or top official fro Harappa or Mohenjodaro. Valued for its milk, it flesh and its hide, the bull was considered to be on of the sacrificial offerings most pleasing to th gods. A sculpture like this one finely carved fro stone would have likely stood on an altar in a ancient temple as a substitute for the real animal. The body of this bull has been elongated to a dramati effect. The legs are short, further emphasizing th length of the piece. The head is greacefully rounde with long bumps symbolizes the horns. Drilled hole serve as the eyes while a flat, round protrusio represent the snout. The characteristic Zebu bum rises from the neck while a small dulap falls from th chin.